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One way to solve this problem is to have the client have a set of one or more certificates it trusts.If the certificate is not in the set, the server is not to be trusted.Fortunately, you can teach // Load CAs from an Input Stream // (could be from a resource or Byte Array Input Stream or ...) Certificate Factory cf = Certificate Instance("X.509"); // From https:// Stream ca Input = new Buffered Input Stream(new File Input Stream("load-der.crt")); Certificate ca; try finally // Create a Key Store containing our trusted CAs String key Store Type = Key Default Type(); Key Store key Store = Key Instance(key Store Type); key Store.load(null, null); key Certificate Entry("ca", ca); // Create a Trust Manager that trusts the CAs in our Key Store String tmf Algorithm = Trust Manager Default Algorithm(); Trust Manager Factory tmf = Trust Manager Instance(tmf Algorithm); tmf.init(key Store); // Create an SSLContext that uses our Trust Manager SSLContext context = Instance("TLS"); context.init(null, Trust Managers(), null); // Tell the URLConnection to use a Socket Factory from our SSLContext URL url = new URL("https://washington.edu/CAtest/"); Https URLConnection url Connection = (Https URLConnection)Connection(); url SSLSocket Factory(Socket Factory()); Input Stream in = url Input Stream(); copy Input Stream To Output Stream(in, System.out); tricks to send your users' traffic through a proxy of their own that pretends to be your server.The attacker can then record passwords and other personal data.Because the CA issues certificates for many servers, you still need some way to make sure you are talking to the server you want.To address this, the certificate issued by the CA identifies the server either with a specific name such as , which formats information about certificates according to the X.509 standard. Cert Path Validator Exception: Trust anchor for certification path not found. Open SSLSocket Impl.start Handshake(Open SSLSocket Impl.java:374) at http.
However, anyone can generate their own certificate and private key, so a simple handshake doesn't prove anything about the server other than that the server knows the private key that matches the public key of the certificate.
This is similar to an unknown certificate authority, so you can use the same approach from the previous section.
You can create your own , this time trusting the server certificate directly.
Specifically, the command asks for the subject, which contains the server name information, and the issuer, which identifies the CA. Http Connection.setup Secure Socket(Http Connection.java:209) at http.
$ openssl s_client -connect wikipedia.org:443 | openssl x509 -noout -subject -issuer subject= /serial Number=s Orr2r Kp MVP70Z6E9BT5re Y008SJEd Yv/C=US/O=*.wikipedia.org/OU=GT03314600/OU=See (c)11/OU=Domain Control Validated - Rapid SSL(R)/CN=*.issuer= /C=US/O=Geo Trust, Inc./CN=Rapid SSL CA has further examples about how to deal with request and response headers, posting content, managing cookies, using proxies, caching responses, and so on. Https URLConnection Impl$Https Ssl Connection(Https URLConnection Impl.java:478) at http. Http URLConnection Response(Http URLConnection Impl.java:282) at http.
The client can then verify that the server has a certificate issued by a CA known to the platform.